Energy Providers

* Renewable capacity firming
* Wind generation grid integration (short duration)


* Lower cost of A/S(Ancillary Serices)
* Regulation
* Reserve capacity
* T&D upgrade deferral
* Peak shaving (corporations)


* Frequency regulation
* Electric Supply Reserve Capacity
* T&D upgrade deferral


* More renewables
* Less emission
* More jobs
* Healthier climate


* Demand charge management (corporate peak shaving)
* T&D upgrade deferral

Car Owner

Corporate Fleet/Consumer
* Household energy efficiency
* Emergency backup

Fleet Vehicles

* Demand charge management (corporate peak shaving)
* Emergency power


* Lowers the cost of EV ownership
* Accelerates deployment of EVs
* Access to high value information




FULL V2G Concept

Full V2G Concept

Vehicle to Grid (V2G) allows a parked electric vehicle to charge its battery as well as discharge it battery back to the grid in response to real-time requests from a remote entity such as a grid system operator. This means that the system operator can treat the vehicle as a “smart” load, simply delaying its charge, charging more slowly/quickly, or as a generator that can contribute small amounts of power to the system if the driver allows it. These capabilities, when combined with other EVs, can constitute sufficient capacity to bid into ancillary service markets, producing a revenue stream for the vehicle owner.

In a system that includes V2G-enabled electric vehicles, the power still begins at the generator and travels to the vehicle. In this system, however, in addition to being a smart load a vehicle can report its available capacity for aggregation with that of other vehicles in prior to sending electricity back to the grid for short periods of time. In aggregate, such vehicles can constitute a storage resource of comparable capacity to traditional generators.

V2G Components

Vehicle to Grid Components

Vehicle Smart Link

A communication software and device that receives instructions from the Nuvve aggregation platform in order to control the battery charging and discharging, as well as, predicts travel time and distance.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

Also, known as the charging station, it allows not only to charge the electric vehicle but also to discharge it following the instructions that the Vehicle Smart Link receives from the aggregation platform.

Nuvve’s aggregation platform

A cloud connected application that ensures each vehicle has enough charge for the next trip; before calculating how much remaining capacity to sell to grid.

How V2G Works

Vehicle to Grid : How it Works


Research & Development Results

Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

Prof. Willett Kempton, Nuvve’s CTO has been working on this problem since 1996, looking for the most economic and ecologic solution based on Electric Vehicles.

Results: Aggregation

More information: || V2G

2010 Smart Grid Peer Review
Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE

Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

by Willett Kempton
College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Center for Carbon-free Power Integration

University of Delaware

Patents • Patent Applications, 2007-2010:

Patents • Patent Applications, 2007-2010:
  • U.S. Patent Application Publication Nos. 2007/ 0282495 A1 “System and Method for Assessing Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Integration” filed May 2007 (UD; Kempton and Tomic)
  • U.S. Patent application publication No. “Hierarchical Priority and Control Algorithms for the Grid-Integrated Vehicle”, filed March 2009, (UD; Kempton)
  • Three US and PCT applications in 2010, Electric Vehicle Station Equipment for Grid-Integrated Vehicles; Electric Vehicle Equipment for Grid-Integrated Vehicles; Aggregator Server for Grid-Integrated Vehicles. Filed Sept 2010 (UD; Kempton and co-inventors).
  • One signed license for VSL, in license negotiations for EVSE and for aggregator.


Nuvve Aggregation Technology
A cloud connected application that ensures each vehicle has enough charge for the next trip; before calculating how much remaining capacity to sell to grid.

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